4. What kind of measures do the EU member states apply in order to increase the use of renewable energy in transport? Which countries have introduced E10 petrol?The prevalence of E10 petrol in the EU countries is varied due to the differences between the member states’ vehicle populations and taxation practices. The measures taken to promote the use of renewable energies in transport as well as the timing of those measures are determined by each member state on the basis of their unique circumstances. Finland was able to introduce the E10 petrol at an early stage because the necessary national regulations, the E10 quality standards and the energy taxation giving a tax incentive to bio components meeting the sustainability criteria were revamped and adopted in good time.
In the EU area E10 petrol is in use in France, Germany and Finland. E.g. Sweden is a country whose starting point is quite different from that in Finland. Sweden’s vehicle stock is equipped to use ethanol blends on a larger scale than the Finnish vehicle stock, and Sweden has already made considerable investments into ethanol blended fuels (E85).
The biggest producers of ethanol are the USA and Brazil whose share of the global ethanol production is nearly 90 percent. E10 petrol is used comprehensively in the USA who currently prepares for a large scale introduction of E15 petrol. Brazil began blending ethanol into petrol over 30 years ago and currently the ethanol concentrations there are 20-25% v/v. Since 2001, the E10 petrol has been mandatory in Columbia whose plan is to increase the ethanol concentrations gradually to 25% v/v by 2020. In Asia, the E10 petrol is in use in Thailand and it is widely used also in Australia.
In Finland, already since the 1990s, various oxygen additives have been used in petrol, so the oxygen content of petrol is nothing new. Ethanol has been used in 95 octane petrol from the year 2008 (up to 5 percent by volume), so the change to 10 percent by volume of ethanol was not very large. In the past, the shift to unleaded petrol was a much greater change.