Frequently asked questions

Terminology

Bi-fuel vehicle

A vehicle designed to run on petrol and on compressed natural gas or biogas.

Biofuel

Liquid or gaseous transport fuel made of biomass.

CO2

Carbon dioxide

Corrosion damage

Damage caused by a material dissolving onto its surrounding materials or reacting with them in some other way.

EN 228

European fuel quality standard. Determines the petrol quality requirements and methods of analysis.

Energy content

Thermal energy is created in an engine as fuel is burned. The amount of the resulting energy is called the fuel energy content. Energy content is often measured per units of fuel mass or volume, for instance in megajoules per litre (MJ/l).

Ethanol

Ethyl alcohol

FAME

Abbreviation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, a biodiesel component. FAME, in chemical terms, refers to oxygen-containing methyl ester of a fatty acid. There are different kinds of esters depending on the types of fats or oils they have been produced of. FAME diesel components are commonly called biodiesels.

Flash point

Flash off temperature. The lowest temperature at which the fluid can vaporize to form a mixture in air close to the fluid’s surface ignitable by an ignition devise. Flash point is a distinguishing feature of many oil products.

Flexible Fuel Vehicle, FFV

Abbreviation FFV comes from words Flexible Fuel Vehicle. It is a vehicle designed to run on high ethanol blends or their mixtures, and also alternatively on standard petrol.

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD)

Determines the environmental and health specifications of European petrols and diesel fuels. Moreover, the directive specifies the goals for reducing and monitoring the greenhouse gases from road transport fuels over their lifecycle.

High ethanol blend

High ethanol blends of 50-85% v/v ethanol in motor gasoline (E85, for instance). Suitable for Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV).

Lambda sensor

An oxygen sensor located in a vehicle exhaust manifold or exhaust pipe. Measures the vehicle’s residual oxygen content and controls the fuel feed.

Octane rating requirement

Minimum fuel octane rating required by a vehicle. Too low an octane rating will cause the engine to knock signifying that the fuel is prematurely ignited. This may damage the engine.

Petrol 95 E10

95 octane petrol containing up to 10% v/v ethanol.

Petrol 98 E5

98 octane petrol containing up to 5% v/v ethanol.

Renewable Energy Directive (RED, REN)

Constitutes the joint European framework for the promotion of renewable energies. Sets binding national quantitative goals within the EU for the consumption of renewable energies, and sets the definitions for renewable energies. Moreover, the directive specifies the elements that must be considered while assessing renewable energy chains of production.

Three-way catalytic converter

A catalytic converter used in conjunction with petrol engines. Simultaneously transfers carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides into harmless compounds.

Valve protection additive

A protective additive designed for the exhaust valves of some older cars’ engines. Substitute for the lead that petrol used to contain.

Volume-volume percentage (% v/v)

Indicates the percentage of the fuel component volume of the total fuel volume.

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